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Feathers, Fertilizer and States of Nature: Uses of Albatrosses in the U.S.-Japan Borderlands

Table of Contents


ABSTRACT

LIST OF FIGURES

MAPS

The North Pacific Ocean

Islands Annexed to the Empire of Japan, 1862-1945

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


Introduction: Why Care About Albatrosses?

The Pacific: Wilderness, Frontier or Borderland?

The Trouble with Ecological Imperialism

The Political Ecology of Wilderness

Science, Nature and Magic

Chapter Outline

1. Producing Sovereignty: The Great Japanese Bird Massacre, 1887-1902

The Marcus Island Incident

Sovereignty, Territory and Inhabitation

The Guano Rush

Bonins of Contention

Bird Rush Part I: Tamaoki Han’emon Claims Torishima

Bird Rush Part II: Mizutani Shinroku Claims Marcus Island

Producing Sovereignty

Destiny Manifest?

2. The Frontiers of Ornithology: Labor, Capital and Knowledge on a Hawaiian Guano Island 

Laysan Island as a Site of Knowledge and Fertilizer Production

Early Knowledge of Albatrosses

Pacific Exploration, the Enlightenment and The Rime of the Ancient Mariner

19th Century Ornithology: Romanticism, Nationalism and Conservation

Ornithologists Flock to Laysan Island

The Early History of Laysan

Asian Indentured Labor and the Growth of Hawaii’s Plantation Economy

Birdshit and Bloodshed on Laysan, 1890-1900

“A True Bird Paradise”: Producing Laysan’s State of Nature

3. Wildlife and Sovereignty Conservation: Protecting “Native Birds” in the Post-Annexation Hawaiian Borderlands

Roosevelt and Bryan on Nature, Empire and Race

Hawaii from Borderland to Bordered Land

The Cable Comes to Midway Island

The Lisianski Incident of 1904

Max Schlemmer, “King of Laysan”

The United States versus Max Schlemmer

Conserving Nature and Sovereignty on Laysan and Midway

4. Fertile Archipelago: The Rasa Island Phosphate Company and the Political Economy of Guano

Rasa Island: an example of ecological imperialism?

A Potted History of Japanese Fertiliser, Yayoi-Tokugawa

A Pedological Paradigm Shift: Tsunetō Noritaka vs the Rōnō Agronomists

Tsunetō Noritaka’s Search for Guano

The Rasa Island Phosphate Company

The Political Economy of a Phosphate Glut

Tabula Rasa: The Impossibility of a Birds-Eye View of History

5. Saving the Japanese Albatross: Wildlife and Sovereignty Conservation in Postwar Japan

Tokugawa Attitudes Toward Birdlife

Wild Birds and National Treasures, 1880-1930

Japanese Ornithology: An Aristocratic Pursuit

SCAP Promotes Nature and Democracy in Postwar Japan

The Resurrection of the Japanese Albatross

Developing Remote Islands in Post-Imperial Japan

Torishima from Colony to Wilderness, 1902-1965

EPILOGUE: How to Butcher an Albatross


ARCHIVAL SOURCES

SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY

APPENDIX I: STATISTICAL APPENDIX

APPENDIX II: ON THE ROAD TO OLD MIDWAY

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